jueves, 31 de octubre de 2019

Carpe diem

Carpe diem


Biografía de Horacio



Es una locución latina que literalmente significa ‘toma el día’, que quiere decir ‘aprovecha el momento’. Fue acuñada por el poeta romano Horacio (Odas, I, 11):

Carpe diem, quam minimum credula postero
‘Aprovecha el día, no confíes en el mañana’ (trad.).1​

El adagio latino podría equivaler a oraciones en castellano como «no dejes para mañana lo que puedas hacer hoy» o «vive cada momento de tu vida como si fuese el último». Es un tópico literario, o tema recurrente, en la literatura universal como exhortación a no dejar pasar el tiempo que se nos ha brindado y a disfrutar los placeres de la vida dejando a un lado el futuro, que es incierto. 

Cobra especial importancia en el Renacimiento, en el Barroco y en el Romanticismo.

Este tópico respecto a las diferentes épocas literarias ha ido variando en la forma de entenderlo. Durante el periodo de la Edad Media era entendido como: "vive el momento porque vas a morir pronto". Posteriormente durante el Renacimiento, los ideales de belleza y perfección hicieron entenderlo de la siguiente forma: "vive el momento porque vas a envejecer pronto". Finalmente en la época Barroca este tema se volvió a interpretar de la misma forma que en la Edad Media, pero con bastante más intensidad en cuanto a la muerte.

Fuentes

Texto de las Odas 1.11:

Tu ne quaesieris, scire nefas, quem mihi, quem tibi
finem di dederint, Leuconoe, nec Babylonios
temptaris numeros. ut melius, quidquid erit, pati.
seu pluris hiemes seu tribuit Iuppiter ultimam,
quae nunc oppositis debilitat pumicibus mare
Tyrrhenum. Sapias, vina liques et spatio brevi
spem longam reseces. dum loquimur, fugerit invida
aetas: carpe diem, quam minimum credula postero.2​

No indagues —no es lícito saberlo— cuál fin para mí, cuál para ti
los dioses han dispuesto, Leucónoe, ni tientes
los números babilonios. Cuánto mejor será padecer cualquier cosa,
ya que Júpiter te conceda muchos inviernos, ya el último
que ahora destruye contra los escollos opuestos
el mar Tirreno. Sé sabia, filtra los vinos y acorta
al tiempo breve la esperanza larga. Mientras hablamos, se habrá fugado
el tiempo celoso. Abraza el día y confía mínimamente en el futuro.3​

Horacio

miércoles, 16 de octubre de 2019

Ernest Schoffeniels "El anti-Azar"






Chance and Necessity
by Jacques Monod

This radical book by Nobel laureate Monod is an important intellectual event. Chance and Necessity is a philosophical statement whose intention is to sweep away as both false and dangerous the animist conception of man that has dominated virtually all Western worldviews from primitive cultures to those of dialectical materialists.

He bases his argument on the evidence of modern biology, which indisputably shows, that man is the product of chance genetic mutation. With the unrelenting logic of the scientist, he draws upon what we now know (and can theorize) of genetic structure to suggest a new way of looking at ourselves. He argues that objective scientific knowledge, the only reliable knowledge, denies the concepts of destiny or evolutionary purpose that underlie traditional philosophies.

He contends that the persistence of those concepts is responsible for the intensifying schizophrenia of a world that accepts, and lives by, the fruits of science while refusing to face its moral implications. Dismissing as "animist" not only Plato, Hegel, Bergson and Teilhard de Chardin but Spencer and Marx as well, he calls for a new ethic that will recognize the distinction between objective knowledge and the realm of values--an ethic of knowledge that can, perhaps, save us from our deepening spiritual malaise, from the new age of darkness he sees coming.

Preface
Of strange objects
Vitalisms and animisms
Maxwell's demons
Microscopic cybernetics
Molecular ontogenesis
Invariance and perturbations
Evolution
The frontiers
The kingdom and the darkness
Appendixes (less)



Anti-Chance: A Reply to Monod's Chance and Necessity (Pergamon international library of science, technology, engineering, and social studies)





Este articulo lo comparto teniendo como mentor al Doctor Juan Losno (+), amigo y medico estudioso y biólogo, quien me orientó en el conocimiento de esta disciplina y de estos especialistas cuyas referencias comparto.



Ernest. Schoffeniels y T Swain



Anti-Chance: A Reply to Monod's Chance and Necessity is a critique of Jacques Monod's essay on the natural philosophy of modern biology.


It explores the concepts of chance and necessity, central themes of Monod's work, and specifically whether life is the result of the coincidence of diverse independent chains of causality or, on the contrary, whether it obeys the more fundamental concept of chance as proposed by the Danish School of physicists.

Questions such as the chance or the inevitability of it all, the sites and sizes of the knowledge gaps and as to whether they will be filled with physics and chemistry on the one hand or seasoned with metaphysics on the other, are examined.

Ernest Schoffeniels "El anti-Azar"



Lo queramos o no, estamos en este mundo porque hace tres mil millones de años, aproximadamente, las condiciones de la Tierra y las propiedades de los elementos se dispusieron de determinada manera. A algunos les habrá de resultar desesperante ser el fruto de la necesidad, antes que del azar.



Los denodados esfuerzos de todas las religiones y de la mayor parte de las filosofías, empeñadas en negar ciegamente y contra toda evidencia la realidad de la condición humana, si bien son admirables desde el punto de vista estético, no entrañan más que caos y sobresaltos heroicamente ridículos. El oscurantismo ha jugado su baza. ¡Ya es tiempo de que se haga la luz!



SCHOFFENIELS, Ernest. El Anti-Azar; Ed. Miracle, Barcelona, 1977



Jacques Lucien Monod 






Jacques Lucien Monod (February 9, 1910 – May 31, 1976) was a French biochemist who won the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1965, sharing it with François Jacob and André Lwoff "for their discoveries concerning genetic control of enzyme and virus synthesis".

Monod and Jacob became famous for their work on the E. coli lac operon, which encodes proteins necessary for the transport and breakdown of the sugar lactose (lac). From their own work and the work of others, they came up with a model for how the levels of some proteins in a cell are controlled. In their model, the manufacture of proteins, such as the ones encoded within the lac (lactose) operon, is prevented when a repressor, encoded by a regulatory gene, binds to its operator, a specific site in the DNA sequence that is close to the genes encoding the proteins. 

(It is now known that a repressor bound to an operator physically blocks RNA polymerase from binding to the promoter, the site where transcription of the adjacent genes begins.)

The study of the control of expression of genes in the lac operon provided the first example of a system for the regulation of transcription. Monod also suggested the existence of messenger RNA molecules that link the information encoded in DNA and proteins. For these contributions, he is widely regarded as one of the founders of molecular biology.

Philosophical contributions

Monod published Chance and Necessity in 1971 (based on a series of lectures given at Pomona College in 1969), a short but influential examination of the philosophical implications of modern biology, appropriate for a nontechnical audience.

He acknowledges his connection to the French existentialists in the epigraph of the work, which quotes the final paragraphs of Camus' The Myth of Sisyphus. In summarizing recent progress in several areas of biology (including his own research), he highlights the ways in which information was found to take physical form and hence be capable of influencing events in the world.

For example, the information allowing a protein enzyme to 'select' only one of several similar compounds as the substrate of a chemical reaction is encoded in the precise 3-dimensional shape of the enzyme; that precise shape is itself encoded by the linear sequence of amino acids comprising the protein; that particular sequence of amino acids is encoded by the sequence of nucleotides in the gene for that enzyme.

'Necessity,' in the title of his work, refers to the fact that the enzyme must act as it does, catalyzing a reaction with one substrate but not another, according to the constraints imposed by its structure. While the enzyme itself cannot be said in any meaningful way to have a choice about its activity, the thrust of Jacob and Monod's Nobel prize-winning research was to show how a bacterial cell can choose whether or not to carry out the reaction catalyzed by the enzyme.

As he explains, one way the cell can make such a choice is by either synthesizing the enzyme or not, in response to its chemical environment. However, the synthesis/no synthesis choice is in turn governed by necessary biochemical interactions between a repressor protein, the gene for the enzyme, and the substrate of the enzyme, which interact such that the outcome (enzyme synthesis or not) differs according to the variable composition of the cell's chemical environment.

The hierarchical, modular organization of this system clearly implies that additional regulatory elements can exist that govern, are governed by, or otherwise interact with any given set of regulatory components. Because in general, the bacterial activity that results from these regulatory circuits is in accord with what is beneficial for the bacterial cell's survival at that time, the bacterium as a whole can be described as making rational choices, even though the bacterial components involved in deciding whether to make an enzyme (repressor, gene, and substrate) have no more choice about their activities than does the enzyme itself.

Monod shows us a paradigm of how choice at one level of biological organization (metabolic activity) is generated by necessary (choiceless) interactions at another level (gene regulation); the ability to choose arises from a complex system of feedback loops that connect these interactions. 

He goes on to explain how the capacity of biological systems to retain information, combined with chance variations during the replication of information (i.e. genetic mutations) that are individually rare but commonplace in aggregate, leads to the differential preservation of that information which is most successful at maintaining and replicating itself.

Monod writes that this process, acting over long periods of time, is a sufficient explanation (indeed the only plausible explanation) for the complexity and teleonomic activity of the biosphere. Hence, the combined effects of chance and necessity, which are amenable to scientific investigation, account for our existence and the universe we inhabit, without the need to invoke mystical, supernatural, or religious explanations.

While acknowledging the likely evolutionary origin of a human need for explanatory myths, in the final chapter of Chance and Necessity, Monod advocates for adopting an objective (hence value-free), scientific worldview as our guide to assessing the truth. He describes this as an 'ethics of knowledge', which disrupts the older philosophical, mythological and religious ontologies that claimed to provide both ethical values and a standard for judging the truth.

For Monod, assessing truth separate from any value judgment is what frees humans to act authentically, by requiring that they choose the ethical values that motivate their actions. He concludes "... the man, at last, knows he is alone in the unfeeling immensity of the universe, out of which he has emerged only by chance. His destiny is nowhere spelled out, nor is his duty.

The kingdom above or the darkness below; it is for him to choose". While apparently bleak, in comparison to the concepts that humanity belongs to some inevitable, universal process, or that a benevolent God created and protects us, an acceptance of the scientific assessment described in the first part of the quote is, for Monod, the only possible basis of an authentic, ethical human life. It is reasonable to conclude that Monod himself did not find this position bleak; the quote he chose from Camus to introduce Chance and Necessity ends with the famous sentence "One must imagine Sisyphus happy."

His views were in direct opposition to the religious certainties of his ancestor Henri's[20] brothers, Frédéric Monod and Adolphe Monod, who were prominent evangelical preachers in the 19th century. In 1973, Jacques Monod was one of the signers of the Humanist Manifesto II.

Sociologist Howard L. Kaye has suggested that Monod failed in his attempt to banish "mind and purpose from the phenomenon of life" in the name of science. It may be more accurate to suggest that Monod sought to include mind and purpose within the purview of scientific investigation, rather than attributing them to supernatural or divine causes. While not explicitly addressing mind or consciousness, his scientific research demonstrated that biology includes feedback loops that govern interacting systems of biochemical reactions, such that the system as a whole can be described as having a purpose and making choices.

Monod's philosophical writing indicates that he recognized the implication that such systems could arise and be elaborated upon by evolution through natural selection. The importance of Monod's work as a bridge between the chance and necessity of evolution and biochemistry on the one hand, and the human realm of choice and ethics on the other, can be judged by his influence on philosophers, biologists and computer scientists such as Daniel Dennett, Douglas Hofstadter, Marvin Minsky and Richard Dawkins.

Awards and honors

In addition to winning the Nobel Prize, Monod was also the Légion d'honneur and elected a Foreign Member of the Royal Society (ForMemRS) in 1968

Personal life
Monod was born in Paris to an American mother from Milwaukee, Charlotte (Charlie) MacGregor Todd, and a French Huguenot father, Lucien Monod who was a painter and inspired him artistically and intellectually. He attended the lycée at Cannes until he was 18.

In October 1928 he started his studies in biology at the Sorbonne.[1] During World War II, Monod was active in the French Resistance, eventually becoming the chief of staff of the French Forces of the Interior.[23] He was a Chevalier in the Légion d'Honneur (1945), and was awarded the Croix de Guerre (1945) and the American Bronze Star Medal.

In 1938 he married Odette Bruhl (d.1972).
Jacques Monod died of leukemia in 1976 and was buried in the Cimetière du Grand Jas in Cannes on the French Riviera.

Link
Todas las citas se mantienen en el artículo original.



domingo, 13 de octubre de 2019

sapere aude

sapere aude



Sapere aude is the Latin phrase meaning "Dare to know"; and also is loosely translated as "Dare to be wise", or even more loosely as "Dare to think for yourself!" Originally used in the First Book of Letters (20 BCE), by the Roman poet Horace, the phrase Sapere aude became associated with the Age of Enlightenment, during the 17th and 18th centuries, after Immanuel Kant used it in the essay, "Answering the Question: What Is Enlightenment?" (1784). As a philosopher, Kant claimed the phrase Sapere aude as the motto for the entire period of the Enlightenment, and used it to develop his theories of the application of reason in the public sphere of human affairs.

In the 20th century, in the essay "What is Enlightenment?" (1984) Michel Foucault took up Kant's formulation of "dare to know" in an attempt to find a place for the individual man and woman in post-structuralist philosophy, and so come to terms with the problematic legacy of the Enlightenment. Moreover, in the essay The Baroque Episteme: the Word and the Thing (2013) Jean-Claude Vuillemin proposed that the Latin phrase Sapere aude be the motto of the Baroque episteme.[1]

18th century: Immanuel Kant

In the essay, "Answering the Question: What Is Enlightenment?" (1784), Immanuel Kant describes the Age of Enlightenment as "Man's release from his self-incurred immaturity"; and, with the phrase Sapere aude, the philosopher charges the reader to follow such a program of intellectual self-liberation, by means of Reason. The essay is Kant's shrewd, political challenge to men and women, suggesting that the mass of "domestic cattle" have been bred, by unfaithful stewards, to not question what they have been told about the world and its ways.

Kant classifies the uses of reason as public and private. The public use of reason is discourse in the public sphere, such as political discourse (argument and analysis); the private use of reason is rational argument, such as that used by a person entrusted with a duty, either official or organizational. Skillfully praising King Frederick II of Prussia (r. 1740–86) for his intellectual receptiveness to the political, social, and cultural ideas of the Enlightenment, the philosopher Kant proposes that an enlightened prince is one who instructs his subjects to: "Argue as much as you will, and about what you will, only obey!"

It is the courage of the individual man to abide the advice Sapere aude that will break the shackles of despotism, and reveal, through public discourse, for the benefit of the mass population and of the State, better methods of governance, and of legitimate complaint.[3]

20th century: Michel Foucault



In response to Immanuel Kant's Age of Enlightenment propositions for intellectual courage, in the essay "What is Enlightenment?" (1984), Michel Foucault rejected much of the hopeful politics proposed by Kant: a people ruled by just rulers; ethical leaders inspired by the existential dare advised in the phrase Sapere aude. Instead, Foucault applied ontology to examine the innate resources for critical thinking of a person's faculty of Reason. With the analytical value of Sapere aude reinforced by the concept of "Faithful betrayal" to impracticable beliefs, Foucault disputed the Enlightenment-era arguments that Kant presents in the essay "Answering the Question: What is Enlightenment?" (1784).

Like his 18th-century predecessor, Foucault also based his philosophic interpretation of Sapere aude upon a definite practice of critical thinking that is an "attitude, an ethos, a philosophical life in which [is found] the critique of what we are". Such an enlightened, intellectual attitude applies reason to experience, and so effects a historical criticism of "the limits that are imposed on us". The criticism is "an experiment with the possibility of going beyond" imposed limits, in order to reach the limit-experience, which simultaneously is an individual, personal act, and an act that breaks the concept of the individual person.[4]

The phrase is widely used as a motto, especially by educational institutions.
Latin Etymology

It is from the epithet of a parable, explaining that a fool waits for the stream to stop before crossing, while a wise man forgoes comfort and crosses anyway.

The original use seems to be in Epistle II of Horace's Epistularum liber primus[1]: Dimidium facti qui coepit habet: sapere aude ("He who has begun is half done: dare to know!").

Pronunciation: (Classical) IPA(key): /ˈsa.pe.re ˈau̯.deː/, [ˈsa.pɛ.rɛ ˈau̯.d̪eː]

Phrase: sapere audē
"Have the courage to think for yourself"
"Have courage to use your own reason", in the context of committing to tasks that need to be embarked upon, however unpleasant or awkward.

Usage notes
Immanuel Kant described it as the motto of the Enlightenment in his essay "What Is Enlightenment?".

It is a frequently used motto for academic institutions.

References: ^ Epistularum liber primus from The Latin Library, line 40

References
⦁  Jean-Claude Vuillemin, Epistémè baroque: le mot et la chose, Paris, Hermann, coll. "Savoir Lettres," 2013.
⦁  "Horace ''Epistulae'' 1.2.40 from". The Latin Library. Retrieved 2012-03-08.
⦁  "ereau.de steht zum Verkauf". sap.ereau.de.
⦁  "Foucault's Essay, What is Enlightenment?". Foucault.info. Retrieved 2012-03-08.

viernes, 11 de octubre de 2019

PETER HANDKE: A Sorrow Beyond Dreams (New York Review Books Classics)

A Sorrow Beyond Dreams (New York Review Books Classics)



 Peter Handke  (Author), Ralph Manheim  (Translator), Jeffrey Eugenides 

From Library Journal

In this heartwrenching account of his mother's illness and death, the avant-garde Austrian novelist and playwright Handke (Once Again for Thucydides; Ride Across Lake Constance and Other Plays) details his struggle to tell the story of his mother's life and his relationship to her without turning it into an overwrought elegy.

The result, first published in the United States in 1974 as part of a collection (this is the first time it has been published as a freestanding book), is indeed considered by most critics to be one of Handke's finest literary achievements, one that is much less abstract than much of his other writing. 

Seven weeks after his mother's suicide in 1971, Handke felt compelled to preserve his memories of her, of their life together during the postwar misery, and to record his rage over the problems that his mother left for him to solve after her death.

Both his anger at this legacy and his admiration for his mother are obvious, and the essay is melancholy and lucid. Highly recommended for large public library and academic literary collections.

Ali Houissa, Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY

PETER HANDKE was born in Griffen, Austria, in 1942. His many works include The Jukebox and Other Essays on Storytelling (1994), Absence (1990), and Repetition (1988).

jueves, 10 de octubre de 2019

Peter Handke: “Ahora me siento libre”:PREMIO NOBEL LITERATURA 2019

PREMIOS NOBEL

Peter Handke: “Ahora me siento libre”


El escritor recibe a los periodistas en su casa, a las afueras de París. “Como escritor has nacido culpable y hoy no me siento así", explica sobre sus sensaciones



El escritor Peter Handke, en el jardín de su casa de Chaville, a las afueras de París, tras recibir el anuncio del Nobel.



El escritor Peter Handke, en el jardín de su casa de Chaville, a las afueras de París, tras recibir el anuncio del Nobel. FRANCOIS MORI AP

MARC BASSETS : Chaville 10 OCT 2019 - 23:36 CEST

Peter Handke, una guía básica

Olga Tokarczuk y Peter Handke ganan el Nobel de Literatura de 2018 y 2019

Handke, un premio Nobel que asistió al entierro del dictador Milosevic

Cuando sonó el teléfono poco después al mediodía de ayer, Peter Handke pensó que se trataba de un abogado estadounidense cuya llamada esperaba. Enseguida entendió que el interlocutor era alguien de la Academia Sueca. Unos minutos más tarde se anunciaría al mundo que le otorgaban el Premio Nobel de Literatura correspondiente a 2019.



El jurado justificó el galardón a Handke “por su trabajo influyente que, con genio lingüístico, ha explorado la periferia y la especificidad de la experiencia humana”. El autor austriaco, de 76 años, se fue a caminar por los bosques cercanos de Chaville, el pueblo en las afueras de París donde reside.

A las 15.45 regresó por uno de los caminos que conducen a su casa con jardín. Le esperaba una decena de periodistas. “Pasen”, dijo, desafiando su reputación de escritor huraño y aislado, de artista apátrida y extraterritorial. Vive aquí desde hace 30 años, rodeado de vecinos que no saben muy bien a qué se dedica.

“No sé si estoy feliz, pero estoy emocionado”, declaró. “Pero no lo puedo mostrar con las cámaras y los aparatos de fotos. Es difícil estar emocionado. Hay que ser actor para estarlo delante de ustedes”. Después reveló: “No sé cómo celebrarlo. Me gustaría beber, pero no he comido nada hoy. No tengo hambre”. Sus sensaciones eran extrañas. “Como escritor has nacido culpable. Y hoy, a esta hora, no me siento culpable, me siento libre”.

Es un premio atípico. Se anuncia junto al de 2018, que quedó suspendido por el escándalo de abusos sexuales que golpeó la Academia. Ese galardón ha recaído en la escritora polaca Olga Tokarczuk, autora que Handke no conoce. El reconocimiento le ha llegado al autor austriaco cuando muchos habían dejado de esperarlo.

Los ensayos de Handke en defensa de Serbia durante las guerras balcánicas de los años noventa, y aún más el gesto de leer un discurso al entierro del líder nacionalista serbio Slobodan Milosevic, muerto en 2006 en una celda del Tribunal Penal Internacional de La Haya, parecían haberlo relegado, aunque cada año seguía figurando en las quinielas. 

Bajo sospecha, a veces, de decidir por motivos políticos (es célebre el caso del Nobel jamás concedido a Jorge Luis Borges), esta vez nadie podrá acusar a los académicos suecos de no haberse ceñido a motivos estrictamente literarios. La Academia ha premiado a un europeo con opiniones que hoy se calificarían de políticamente incorrectas. Él no lo esperaba.



“Por los problemas que tuve hace años nunca pensé que me eligieran”, dijo el autor de El miedo del portero ante el penalti y Desgracia impeorable. “Hubo mucho ruido cuando escribí de un modo distinto sobre la guerra civil en Yugoslavia, y puedo entenderlo. Por eso creo que la decisión de la Academia de Estocolmo demuestra valentía”. Amable y hospitalario con los periodistas, saltando entre el alemán, en inglés, el francés y algo de castellano, Handke se mostró incómodo ante las preguntas de sus posiciones sobre Serbia y Milosevic. 

Sobre su presencia en el funeral del líder serbio, replicó: “¿Es un crimen? ¿A usted le parece un crimen?”. “No tengo nada que cambiar. Cada día me gustaría cambiar”, continuó. “Pero mi naturaleza es mi naturaleza, y es la de un escritor, no de un periodista. Mi sentimiento más profundo es el épico, como Cervantes, como Homero, como Tolstói. Este es mi mundo. Y escritores como Adalbert Stifter, Heimito von Doderer, Ivo Andric”.

Relación con España

El laureado también mencionó la influencia de España, país donde ha pasado temporadas y que aparece en libros suyos como Ensayo sobre el jukebox, Ensayo sobre los días silenciosos y Ensayo sobre el cansancio. Habla de Cuenca, de Soria y de Linares. Cita a San Juan de la Cruz, a Teresa de Ávila, a Cervantes. “También los paisajes, sobre todo”, añade. “Me gusta Castilla: mil metros sobre el mar, y está vacío. Pero gustar no es la palabra. Siento apego”.

Handke es reacio a entrar en debates contemporáneos, pero cuando un periodista le pregunta sobre la ola nacionalista en Europa, responde: “Yo distingo entre nacionalismo y patriotismo. Mi país es Austria. Cuando alguien insulta a mi madre, a mis hermanos, a mi país sin conocerlos, me vuelvo patriota. Pero soy absolutamente antinacionalista”.



Hace unos años, Handke declaró que “habría que suprimir el Nobel” porque “es una falsa canonización”. Ayer, con un toque de humor, lo matizaba: “Ahora lo han corregido. Quizá continúen por la buena vía ahora. No tengo nada que criticar”. Y, más serio, explicó: “Cuando critiqué el premio, no hablaba como autor sino como lector. Mi existencia consiste en leer.

Me siento en mi sitio cuando empiezo a leer, a descifrar, a encontrar las palabras”. Explicó que cada mañana dedica un rato a unos versos de Píndaro y a otros autores en griego antiguo. “Es bueno para la cabeza y para el corazón”.

Otra pregunta. ¿En qué gastará el dinero? “Ah, vaya cuestiones… No muy sutiles. Cuando era joven escuchaba una canción de Ray Davies, de los Kinks, con una frase que me gustaba mucho: ‘Hay demasiado en mi cabeza’. No me pregunte por el dinero…”. El autor prevé ir en diciembre a la entrega en Estocolmo. Mientras los fotógrafos le pedían que posase, ante una mesa llena de fruta, lápices y bolígrafos, evocó su amistad con el cineasta Wim Wenders, para quien escribió El cielo sobre Berlín y con el profesor Eustaquio Barjau, traductor al castellano de buena parte de su obra e incluso actor en una de sus películas, La Ausencia, de 1992, con Jeanne Moreau y Bruno Ganz.

¿Y tras el Nobel? “Hay que continuar como si nada. Es uno de mis motivos en la vida: hacer como si nada. Aún tengo cosas que contar, rimar e imaginar”.

PREMIOS NOBEL Olga Tokarczuk y Peter Handke ganan el Nobel de Literatura de 2018 y 2019

PREMIOS NOBEL
Olga Tokarczuk y Peter Handke ganan el Nobel de Literatura de 2018 y 2019




El jurado vuelve a apostar por dos autores europeos frente a las quinielas que apuntaban a escritores de lugares poco representados en la historia del galardón

ANDREA AGUILAR - TOMMASO KOCH
Madrid 10 OCT 2019 - 18:06 CEST

Olga Tokarczuk y Peter Handke, en una ilustración de Niklas Elmehed. En el vídeo, el momento de anuncio de la concesión de los dos Nobel (REUTERS).



Olga Tokarczuk y Peter Handke ganan el Nobel de Literatura de 2018 y 2019FOTOGALERÍA Olga Tokarczuk, premio Nobel de Literatura 2018

La polaca Olga Tokarczuk y el austriaco Peter Handke han ganado el Nobel de Literatura 2018 y 2019, según ha anunciado este jueves la Academia Sueca. El jurado ha vuelto a apostar por dos autores europeos frente a las quinielas que apuntaban hacia nacionalidades poco representadas en la historia del máximo galardón literario. Por primera vez en su historia la Academia ha concedido en el mismo día los premios de dos años consecutivos, tras los escándalos de abusos sexuales y filtraciones que le llevaron a aplazar 12 meses la asignación del galardón de 2018. Aquella interrupción ha convertido la jornada de este jueves en una sesión excepcional, rodeada de gran expectación. Ambos premios Nobel serán entregados el próximo 10 de diciembre.

Tokarczuk es la 15ª mujer —y la segunda polaca, tras la poeta Wislawa Szymborska— que recibe el Nobel de Literatura, que han recibido 116 galardonados a lo largo de su historia. La Academia Sueca ha querido en esta ocasión reconocer la "imaginación narrativa que representa, con pasión enciclopédica, el cruce de fronteras como una forma de vida”. Nacida en 1962 en un pueblo de la región de Silesia, la escritora se formó como psicóloga y debutó con su primer libro a principios de los noventa. "Construye sus novelas sobre una tensión entre opuestos culturales: naturaleza frente a cultura, razón frente a locura, hombre frente a mujer, hogar frente a alienación", agregó el jurado.



La escritora polaca visitará España en noviembre, coincidiendo con la aparición de la traducción de su última novela, y participará el 15 de noviembre en el festival Literaktum de San Sebastián. Su obra fue publicada originalmente por Lumen en español, más tarde por Siruela y sacará su nuevo libro en Anagrama, aunque apenas un puñado de sus novelas se pueden leer en castellano: a Sobre los huesos de los muertos y Un lugar llamado antaño se sumará en pocas semanas, Los errantes.

Aunque Tokarczuk reside en Wroclaw, el anuncio de esta mañana la ha sorprendido en Alemania. La popularidad de esta autora ha ido en aumento en los últimos años, se alzó con el Man Booker International de 2018, obtuvo también el Prix Jan Michalski y está nominada al National Book Award en la categoría de mejor libro traducido del año en Estados Unidos. La adaptación cinematográfica de su novela Spoor, dirigida por Agnieszka Holland, obtuvo el Oso de Plata en el Festival de Berlín de 2017. 

Pensador, ensayista, novelista, poeta, dramaturgo y cineasta, Handke (Griffen, Austria, 76 años) es autor de libros como Desgracia impeorable, Carta breve para un largo adiós o El miedo del portero al penalty, de obras teatrales como Insultos al público o El pupilo quiere ser tutor y escribió los guiones de películas de Wim Wenders tan célebres como Falso movimiento y Cielo sobre Berlín. 

También dirigió filmes como La ausencia o La mujer zurda. Su nombre había sonado en las listas de posibles candidatos al Nobel, pero había sido descartado de las quinielas por la controversia política que su figura despierta. El jurado ha dicho que recibe el Nobel de Literatura 2019 “por un trabajo influyente que, con inventiva lingüística, ha explorado las periferias y la especificidad de la experiencia humana". En España, su obra ha sido editada por sellos como Península, Nórdica, Alfaguara o Alianza, entre otros. "Handke se ha asentado como uno de los escritores más influyentes de Europa después de la Segunda Guerra Mundial", agrega la Academia Sueca. 

Olga Tokarczuk, en el festival internacional del libro de Edimburgo, en agosto de 2017. En vídeo, parte de su discurso tras ganar el Man Booker International en 2018. ROBERTO RICCIUTI/GETTY IMAGES / VÍDEO: REUTERS-QUALITY

Este octubre el académico Anders Olsson subrayó que la diversidad era una de las prioridades que se había marcado el comité. “Necesitamos ampliar nuestra perspectiva”, afirmó ante los medios de comunicación. “Hemos tenido una visión eurocéntrica de la literatura y ahora estamos mirando por todo el mundo. 

Anteriormente, estábamos más enfocados en los hombres. Ahora hay muchas mujeres que son realmente excelentes”.

Olga Tokarczuk y Peter Handke ganan el Nobel de Literatura de 2018 y 2019El Premio Nobel de Literatura, un año después de la tormenta
¿Cuánto sabes del Nobel de Literatura?

Los números sirven para aclarar sus palabras: en 101 ocasiones la Academia ha premiado a un hombre, lo que supone el 87% del total. Además, 85 galardonados (más del 73%) proceden de Europa, incluidos los propios Tokarczuk y Handke. Francia es el país con más escritores encumbrados, 14.

El excepcional anuncio de dos premios este año, algo inédito en la historia centenaria del Nobel de Literatura, se debe al escándalo sexual y de presuntas filtraciones que sacudieron la Academia Sueca en noviembre de 2017. El diario sueco de mayor tirada, Dagens Nyheter, publicó entonces un reportaje en el que 18 mujeres acusaban de abusos y acoso sexual a Jean-Claude Arnault, marido de la académica Katarina Frostenson y muy próximo a la institución. Una investigación interna concluyó que Frostenson había incurrido en conflicto de intereses, y hubo de abandonar su puesto en la Academia por las acusaciones de haber filtrado información confidencial a su cónyuge. El escándalo forzó un periodo de reflexión y un cambio profundo. Se precipitaron dimisiones en una institución cuyos cargos eran vitalicios.

La noticia del Nobel siempre cae como una sorpresa, pero este año por partida doble. Las obras de Handke y Tokarczuk inundarán a partir de este jueves las librerías. “Nunca se puede tener nada previsto porque son siempre muchos los que pueden ganar y muchos los que iban a ser seguros como Amos Oz y Philip Roth y nunca lo recibieron”, explicaba ayer al teléfono Verónica García de Machado, grupo de distribución.

Hoy, puede que los lectores se acerquen a buscar las obras de los ganadores, pero puede que, al menos en el caso de la aún desconocida para el gran público, con Tokarczuk como ocurrió con Svetlana Alexiévich y su libro sobre Chernóbil, haga falta una serie de televisión para que despegue como fenómeno editorial.

domingo, 29 de septiembre de 2019

Egregore




Egregore

This article is about the occult concept of a group mind.

Egregore (also egregor) is an occult concept representing a "thoughtform" or "collective group mind", an autonomous psychic entity made up of and influencing, the thoughts of a group of people. The symbiotic relationship between an egregore and its group has been compared to the more recent, non-occult concepts of the corporation (as a legal entity) and the meme.

History

The first author to adapt "egregore" in a modern language seems to be the French poet, Victor Hugo, in La Légende des siècles ("The Legend of the Ages"), First Series, 1859, where he uses the word "égrégore" first as an adjective, then as a noun, while leaving the meaning obscure.[1] The author seems to have needed a word rhyming with words ending in the sound "or". It would not be the only example of word creation by Victor Hugo. However, the word is the normal form that the Greek word ἑγρήγορος (Watcher) would take in French. This was the term used in the Book of Enoch for great angel-like spirits.

Eliphas Lévi, in Le Grand Arcane ("The Great Mystery", 1868) identifies "egregors" with the tradition concerning the "Watchers", the fathers of the Nephilim, describing them as "terrible beings" that "crush us without pity because they are unaware of our existence."[2]

The concept of the egregore as a group thoughtform was developed in works of the Hermetic Order of the Golden Dawn and the Rosicrucians [3] and has been referenced by writers such as Valentin Tomberg, notably in his anonymously-penned book Meditations on the Tarot.[4] It was also mentioned in the book El maravilloso universo de la magia, by Chilean author Enrique Barrios.

A well-known concept of the egregore is the GOTOS of the Fraternitas Saturni.[5]

Contemporary usage

Gaetan Delaforge, in Gnosis magazine in 1987, defines an egregore as a kind of group mind that is created when people consciously come together for a common purpose.[6]
The concept was featured in Corporate Metabolism series of articles by Paco Xander Nathan, which were published in 2001.

The notion of "egregor" also appears in Daniil Andreyev's Roza Mira, where it represents the shining cloud-like spirit associated with the Church.

Egregore is also used in relation to the Montreal Surrealists, best known as Les Automatistes, in Ray Ellenwood's Egregore: a history of the Montréal automatist movement.[7]
Egregore is also the term for the spiritual personification of each nation in the UK LRP game Empire, run by Profound Decisions.[8]
Gary Lachman identifies Pepe the frog as an egregore in his book Dark Star Rising.[9]

See also
Chaos magic / Collective consciousness / Faith healing / Gestalt

Memetics / Panpsychism / Pathetic fallacy / Servitor (chaos magic) /Tulpa / Vitalism

Notes

1.    Victor Hugo, "Le jour des rois", La Légende des Siècles IV, V, and "L'Italie – Ratbert", La Légende des Siècles VII. Both in the Première Série, 1859.
2.    Lévi, Eliphas, "The Great Mystery" (1868) pp. 127–130, 133, 136
3.    Fama Fraternitatis Rosae Crucis.(1614) Manifesto: Positio. Epilogue page 25
4.    Anonymous (2002-06-01). Meditations on the Tarot: A Journey Into Christian Hermeticism. Translated by Powell, Robert. Jeremy P. Tarcher/ Putnam. ISBN 9781585421619. ASIN 1585421618.
5.    Flowers (1995), pp. 36–38
6.    Delaforge, Gaeten, "The Templar Tradition: Yesterday and Today", Gnosis Magazine, #6, 1987.
7.    Ellenwood, Ray, Egregore: a history of the Montréal automatist movement. Toronto: Exile Editions, 1992. ISBN 9781550960211
8.    "Egregores - Empire". Empire Wiki. profounddecisions.co.uk.
9.    Constable, Simon, "What Magic Got Trump Elected?", Forbes, May 21, 2018.

References
Bernstein, L. S. (1998). "Egregor". The Rosicrucian Archive. Confraternity of the Rose Cross. Archived from the original on January 8, 2012. Retrieved November 22, 2011.
Butler, Walter Ernest (1970). "The Egregore of a School". Servantsofthelight.org. The Servants of the Light. Retrieved November 22, 2011.
Flowers, S. Edred (1995). Fire & Ice: Magical Teachings of Germany's Greatest Secret Occult Order. Llewellyn's Teutonic Magick Series (2nd ed.). Llewellyn Publications. ISBN 0-87542-776-6.
Nathan, Paco Xander (2001). "Chasing Egregors". The Scarlet Letter. Scarlet Woman Lodge, Ordo Templi Orientis.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Egregore

Gaetan Delaforge, en la revista Gnosis de 1987, define un egregor como una especie de mente colectiva creada cuando la gente se une conscientemente para un propósito común. El concepto ha gozado de renovada popularidad entre los practicantes de la magia del caos, siguiendo el "Metabolismo Corporativo" de la serie de artículos de Paco Xander Nathan, publicados en 2001.

El resultado de una sinergia de pensamientos podría ser la descripción más concisa de este estado de ánimo.

La noción de "egregor" también aparece en el libro Roza Mira del ruso Daniil Andreyev donde representa el brillo en la nube como el espíritu asociado con la Iglesia. En Rusia es una creencia común que la palabra "egregor" se originó de este libro espiritual.   El movimiento ocultista ruso DEIR, dirigido por Dmitry Verischchagin, también emplea este concepto.

The Real Meaning of Egregore


The word "Egregore" derives from the Greek word egrégoroi, meaning "watchers," which also transliterates as "Grigori." The word appears in the Septuagint translation of the Book of Becoming an Ordained Minister_6 Lamentations, as well as the Book of Jubilees and the Book of Enoch. 

Even being derived from the word Grigori, which acquired a somewhat negative expectation over time, the general concept of Egregore is not evil. Gaetan Delaforge, in Gnosis Magazine in 1987, defines an Egregore as a kind of group mind which is created when people consciously come together for a common purpose.


When a group of people pray and meditate collectively towards an objective, an Egregore of protection and blessing is sent forth, as a circle of Light that shields and safeguards the purpose of the prayers.

Psychologically speaking, an Egregore is that "atmosphere” or "personality" that develops among groups independent of any of its members. It is the feeling or impression you get when walking into a neighborhood that “feels different” from the surrounding area, or when visiting a club or association that has been around for a long time.


Egregore_circle_of_light_Humanity_HealingIn an occult or magical context, an Egregore is a general imprint that encircles a group entity. It is the summary of the physical, emotional, mental and spiritual energies generated by two or more people vibrating together towards the same goal; being a sub-product of our personal and collective creative process as co-creators of our reality.

An Egregore has developed to the point of attaining an independent existence as an entity itself or as an intentionally created entity, such as a servitor, that has grown in power well beyond its original design. To a non-religious practitioner of magic, an Egregore, and a god, or goddess, would be interchangeable terms. To a religious practitioner, an Egregore would be just below the level of a god or goddess.

circle-of-light_Humanity_Healing. 

The vast majority of human beings both incarnated and disincarnated are, in one way or form, connected to an Egregore.


An Egregore (or astral Group mind) can be either negative or positive, depending on the level of vibration and the frequency. Most of the connections with negative Egregore come from negative contracts made with physical or astral entities in exchange for power, fame or material goods. Also, some of these contracts or pacts can come from emotional persecutions, which at some point was born of the intent to keep the victim under its dominion to the extent of various earthly and parallel lifetimes.

Some of these connections can also be activated through vices, addictions, and unruled sexual activities. When a soul gets committed to these types of obscure energies, there is always the tendency to lose vital energy which can result in the compromise of the monadic essence.

In general, the dominion of the negative Egregore is reaffirmed through artificial implants, which are limiting devices, which can be of a variety of forms, objectives and done with diverse possibilities allowed by the molding of astral matter. They are and functions more or less as thought forms, as holographic projections that may or may not solidify inside of the etheric bodies.


These devices are dangerous for the various levels of consciousness of incarnated and disincarnated beings because they are the means from which negative entities from negative Egregore feed on their vital energies. 


Progressively, these losses of energy can cause disturbances in the physical, psychological, emotional, mental and spiritual areas. It is sometimes hard to identify these implants because, in many cases, they did not originate in the current lifetime, but in previous ones which can be spontaneously activated if some subjective memory cells are activated during this incarnational period.

The Egregore is maintained through the mental and psychic energies of its creators and, as an autonomous entity, it is formed through the persistence and intensities of the current emotional and mental waves. Weak emotions and feelings tend to create undefined egregore, with short life spans. 

The opposite is also true: big circles are created by a strong will, emotions, and determination of purpose. There is a good Egregore that are positive and that brings Blessings, good energies and protection against negative vibrations.


Egregore_gustave_dore_paolo_and_francesca_Humanity_Healing.


An Egregore can be personal or collective. The Egregore of the Umbra [1] is comprised of souls that were negativized by the bodies of desires; they are adepts of vices, drugs, and all sorts of unnatural sets of behaviors that are not characteristic of the spiritually enhanced human being. They are the ones that vibrate and maintain the negative collective Egregore. 

A person psychically balanced and with positive thoughts creates a very positive, prosperous and luminous personal Egregore. The same can be said of the opposite behavior. 

The only way that one can be rid of a negative Egregore is to affiliate with a stronger positive one.

[1] The umbra, Latin for "shadow", is the darkest part of the shadow, where the light source is completely blocked by the occluding body. An observer in the umbra experiences a total eclipse.

http://humanityhealing.net/2011/05/real-meaning-of-egregore/

Se trata de un término ESOTÉRICO. Pero no esotérico porque se trate de "cosas raras" o "misteriosas" sino esotérico en un sentido estricto.

Es un término que se utiliza en el círculo interno de una Orden Iniciática, y por eso, casi ni se conoce la palabra en sí, y mucho menos su significado.

Se llama EGREGOR a un conglomerado específico de energías (del plano astral) compartidas por un colectivo humano. Todo egregor es una Entidad vigilante.

Un egregor surge siempre de un colectivo.
Consciente o inconscientemente, los colectivos humanos (dos o más personas) vierten su ATENCIÓN y sus EMOCIONES sobre determinados intereses.

Las características de los objetivos del colectivo son lo que le dan sus cualidades específicas al egregor, mientras que las emociones son las que le dan la fuerza.
Metafóricamente podríamos decir que la emoción es el "material" y la atención es la dirección y "la forma".

Es perfectamente comprensible que el alcance y el poder de un egregor es directamente proporcional a la cantidad de personas que lo crean y sostienen con sus emociones y su atención.

Todo egregor como entidad, se identifica con su creador, y siempre que se lo convoque (aun inconscientemente) vendrá en apoyo o auxilio de quien le brinda "alimento" (su alimento son las emociones, la atención, y la intención), por eso se le llama vigilante.

Es una entidad inteligente, pues aprende y se perfecciona, y combatirá contra aquello que amenace su supervivencia y la de sus creadores. El grado de identificación que tenga una persona o grupo con una causa, puede llegar a ser tal, que el egregor se manifieste con una intensidad de POSESIÓN.

La posesión implica que esa energía de identificación impregna a uno o varios individuos tan intensamente por un lapso de tiempo, que el egregor se manifiesta a través de ellos, y los individuos se tornan INSTRUMENTOS de la causa compartida, pudiendo llegar a acciones que luego no pueden justificar como emergidas de su propia voluntad individual consciente.